Pesticide Use in Developing Nations
While pesticides pose possible health and environmental hazards wherever they are used, communities in developing nations often face additional hazards uncommon in industrialized nations. The goals of this Toxipedia post to raise public awareness about the impacts of pesticide use in developing nations, and help link environmental health professionals in developing nations with each other and with information resources addressing these complex and critical issues.
Nonprofit Organizations (NGOs)
- Asian NGO Coalition for Agrarian Reform and Rural Development: "A regional NGO association of 20 national and regional NGO networks from 9 Asian countries actively engaged in food security, agrarian reform, sustainable agricultlure, and rural development activities."
- Pesticide Action Network International: links to international conventions on pesticide use, and sustainable alternatives to chemical pesticides (including crop-specific information)
- Pesticide Action Network Asia Pacific: includes Feb 2010 report Communities in Peril: Asian Regional Report on Community Monitoring of Highly Hazardous Pesticide Use.
- Pesticide Action Network Latin America (en Español)
- Pesticide Action Network North America: excellent compilation of resources pertaining to international pesticide use (international treaties, manufacturer and industry sites, pesticide use statistics, crop loss estimates, international and activist organizations, etc.). Also offers website section Just Transitions to Sustainable Alternatives, which includes the page UN assessment of agriculture, poverty, hunger and the environment.
- Pesticide Action Network UK: Integrated Pest Management in Developing Countries; Pesticides and Poverty in Context
- Centre for Science and Environment (India): Food Safety and Toxins Campaign
- Greenpeace China: Pesticides and Health
- Institute of Science in Society: Picking Cotton Carefully
- International Labour Organization (ILO): Program on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment (SAFEWORK), Chemical Safety and the Environment
- Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO): Plant Production and Protection Division (includes section on pests and pest management)
- Interstates Pesticide Committee for Central Africa:"The major objective of CPAC is the sanitation of agricultural production for the preservation of the environment and the health of local consumers, as well as to enhance the competitiveness of local agricultural produce on the international market."
- The World Health Organization (WHO): Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES)
- The World Health Organization (WHO) Environmental Burden of Disease Country Profiles: "WHO presents updated country data on the burden of disease that is preventable through healthier environments. These estimates provide the stepping stone for informed policy making in disease prevention."
- OECD Environmental Directorate Pesticides Programme: "The Pesticide Programme helps OECD governments to co-operate in assessing and reducing the risks of agricultural pesticides."
- UN Environment Program (UNEP), Pesticide-related Activities at UNEP Chemicals: "The UNEP/DTIE Chemicals Branch actively promotes sound management of chemicals within the framework of Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM)."
- UN Environment Program (UNEP), Caribbean Environment Programme: Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Pesticides
- The World Bank: Research in Vietnam and Bangladesh sheds new light on health impacts of pesticides; Pesticide Use in Developing Countries: Vietnam Case Study
Pimentel, David, ed. Encyclopedia of Pest Management. Taylor & Francis, 2006. (Includes the article "Pesticide Health Impacts in Developing Countries" by Aiwerasia V. F. Ngowi, Catharina Wesseling, and Leslie London. Abstract available here.)
Farah, Jumanah. Pesticide Policies in Developing Countries: Do They Encourage Excessive Use?Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1994.
Unless otherwise noted, the links below are for article abstracts.
- Ecobichon, DJ. "Pesticide use in developing countries." Toxicology. 2001, Mar 7; 160(1-3):27-33.
- Wesseling, C., McConnell, R., Partanen, T., and Hogstedt, C. "Agricultural pesticide use in developing countries: health effects and research needs." International Journal of Health Services. 1997; 27, 2: 273-308.
- Kesavachandran, CN; Fareed, M; Pathak, MK; Bihari, V; Mathur, N; Srivastava, AK. "Adverse health effects of pesticides in agrarian populations of developing countries." Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2009; 200:33-52.
- Forget, G. "Pesticides and the Third World." Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 1991, Jan; 32(1):11-31.
- Mansour, SA. "Pesticide exposure--Egyptian scene." Toxicology. 2004, May 20; 198(1-3):91-115.
- Igbedioh, SO. "Minimizing environmental and health effects of agricultural pesticides in developing countries." Ambio; 20 (6). 1991. 219-221.
- Graber DR; Jones WJ; Johnson JA. "Human and ecosystem health: the environment-agriculture connection in developing countries." Journal of Agromedicine. 1995; 2(3):47-64.
- Igbedioh SO. "Effects of agricultural pesticides on humans, animals and higher plants in developing countries." Archives of Environmental Health. July/Aug. 1991, Vol.46, No.4, p.218-224. 52 ref.
- Koh D; Jeyaratnam J. "Pesticides hazards in developing countries." The Science of the Total Environment. Sep. 1996, Vol.188, Suppl.1, p.S78-S85. 21 ref.
- London L; de GS; Wesseling C; Kisting S; Rother HA; Mergler D. "Pesticide usage and health consequences for women in developing countries: outof sight, out of mind?" International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health. 2002 Jan-Mar; 8(1):46-59.
- el Sebae AH. "Special problems experienced with pesticide use in developing countries." Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 1993, Jun; 17(3):287-91.